Mythology Encyclopedia 95

Giant: Gr. Myth. The offspring of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth), who rebelled
against the gods.
A mythical manlike or monstrous being of a huge stature and of more than mortal but
less than godlike power and strength. They appear very frequently in mediaeval
romances and nursery tales, as also in traditions and romantic fiction.
Giantess: The female counterpart of a giant.
Giavanel: Another name for the Dusou (q.v.)
Gift: Sharp instruments should not be given as gifts, they cut friendship; neither pointed
instruments. Vide Scissors, Shoes.
Gigantomachy: The war of the giants.
Gigelorum: In Celtic superstition this is the smallest animal in the world. All that is
known about it is, that it makes its nest in the mite s ear. (CAMPBELL, Sup. Scot.
Highl., P. 220.)
Gidas, St.: Guardian saint of idiots.
Gilgamesh: Babyl. Myth. A legendary king, hero of an epic bearing his name. With
Eabani, his comrade, who dies, he is afflicted with foul diseases. Ut-napishtim (q.v.)
cures him and directs him to the plant of immortality. Nergal grants him an interview
with the ghost of Eabani who describes the sad lot of the dead in the underworld.
Gin-sai: A fabulous bird capable of diffusing so venomous an influence that even its
shadow poisons food. (GRIFFIS, Corea, P. 306.) cf. Basilisk, Dragon, Bazalicek.
Gipsy: Gipsies can cure various diseases and tell fortunes. (Great Britain.)
Gipsies can protect houses from burning. (WOLF, Beitrage, Vol. II, P. 376; SCHONEWERTH,
Vol. II, P. 83; WUTTKE, P. 140.)
Girdle: If a girdle be accidentally loosed on a woman, it is construed into an omen of an
easy delivery. (Macedonia.–ABBOTT, p. 99.) Vide Stocking.
Girru: Babyl. Myth. A deity symbolizing the element of fire.
Gjallhorn: Norse Myth. The horn belonging to Heimdall, of Asgard.
Gladsheim: Norse Myth. The abode of Odin in Asgard.
Glaisein: The Glaisein of the Isle of Man was a kind of brownie and was very strong,
he frequented farms, threshed corn and went to the sheep-folds. (CAMPBELL, West

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Mythology Encyclopedia 94

Gertrude, St.: Vide Mouse, Rat, Vermin. Geryon: Gr. Myth. A giant with three heads, who was killed by Hercules. Getting out of Bed: You should not get out of bed with the left foot first; if you do so,
you will have ill luck the whole day. (Silesia, Hesse, Saxony.–WUTTKE, P. 131;
Oldenburg.–STRACKERJAN, Vol. I, P. 35 ; India, Great Britan, Bohemia, Persia,
Turkey, etc.)
Ghaddar: (Ar.). An evil spirit of Arabic superstition; it is said to be an offspring of Iblis
and is described as found in the borders of El-Yemen. It entices men and either tortures
them or merely terrifies and then leaves them. (LANE, A.S.M.A., P. 44.)
Gharrar: Another spelling for Ghaddar.
Ghost: The soul of a deceased person spoken of as appearing in a visible form or otherwise
manifesting its presence to the living.
:Ghost: I am thy father s spirit;
Doomed for a certain term to walk the night,
And for the day confined to fast in fires,
Till the foul crimes done in my days of nature
Are burnt and purg d away . . .
–SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet, i. v. 15.
To dream of a ghost tells you that persons you fancy to be your enemies are perhapsyour best friends. Ghoul: (Ar.). The Arabs regard it as a kind of Shaitan, that eat men and are capable of
assuming various forms; they haunt burial grounds and other sequestered spots and
feed upon dead bodies. They are supposed to be the offsprings of Iblis. (LANE,
A.S.U.A., P. 43.)
In all Mohammedan countries they are supposed to rob graves and prey on human
corpses; they also kidnap children and devour them. (See the story given in Grande
Dictionnaire de la langue francaise.)
It sucks with the vampire, gorges with the ghoule.
–LOWELL, Among my Books.
Sergeant Bertrand who dug up dead bodies from the Cimetiere du Pere Lachaise and
other cemeteries in and around Paris, and whose case created a great sensation in
1848, has been considered by Mr. Elliot O Donnell (Werewolves) to have been possessed
by a ghoul; in the opinion of Dr. R. von Krafft-Ebing (Psychopathia Sexualis.
Eng. tr. P. 70), it was a clear case of sadism. cf. TARDIEU, Attentats aux moeurs, 1878,
P. 114; LEGRAND, La folie devant les tribuns, P. 514 ; PLOSS, Das Weib, Vol. OO, P.
591.) Vide Ankle-bone, Iron, Tooth.
Ghritachi: Hind. Myth. The name of an Apsaras or celestial nymph.

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Mythology Encyclopedia 93

Danish mothers used garlic to keep evil away from children. (BRAND, Observations, P.
335.)
Garlic was an old English cure for a fiend-struck patient. (CHAMBERS, Book of Days,
vol. i, P. 720.)
In India (CROOKE, P.R.I., Vol. II, P. 35; Ethnologie du Bengale, pp. 118, 85 n. 3; Cf.
JOLLY, Recht und Sitte, PP. 157 seq.; DURKHEIM, La Prohibition de l inceste, Annee
Sociologique, Vol. I, 1896-1897, PP. 44 seq.), and in Macedonia (ABBOTT, P. 141),
garlic is said to scare away demons.
Garm: Norse Myth. Hell s watch-dog, a monster who at Ragnarok breaks loose from
his chains, bays terribly and slays and is slain by Tyr. cf. Cerberus.
Garnet: The garnet is an emblem of constancy and is, like the jacinth, dedicated to
January.
This was the carbuncle of the ancients, which, they said, gave out light.
Garter: The exchange of a yellow garter means a proposal in six months. (Washington,
D.C.–BERGEN, C.S., p. 65.)
If a bride loses a garter, it is a sign that the marriage will be broken off. (STRACKERJAN,
Vol. I, P. 35.) cf, Veil.
Garuda: (pron. Garur). The Garuda of Buddhist mythology is a mysterious being whose
form is like that of a bird of prey, not unlike an eagle or vulture. Vide Tengu.
Gates of Gundoforus: No one carrying poison could pass through these gates. They
were made of the horn of the horned snake by the Apostle Thomas. He built a palace
of sethym wood for the Indian prince Gundoforus, and set up these gates. Vide Horn,
Nurjehan s Bracelet, Unicorn, Peacock, Rhinoceros, Venetian Glass.
Gauri: Hindu Myth. Devi (q.v.) considered as a beneficent deity.
Gautami: Hind. Myth. An epithet of Durga. (ii) Name of a fierce Rakshasi or female
demon.
Gefjon: Norse Myth. A minor goddess resembling Freya. She shares Odin s knowledge
of world s fates and to her come those who die as maids.
Geomancy: Divinations by means of points made in sand, or by means of pebbles or
grains of sand placed on a piece of paper.
Germane, St.: The patron saint for children. Vide Child.
Gerstenalte: Barley-gaffer ; a Teutonic field-spirit of the human type.
Gerth: Teut. Myth. A giantess, wife of Frey.

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Gaea: Gr. Myth. The earth as a goddess, the eldest born of Chaos. Gal-alim: Babyl. Myth. A deity of a local character. Galatea: Sicilian Myth. A sea-nymph beloved by Polypheme, a Cyclops. She herself
had a heartache for Acis. The jealous giant crushed his rival under a huge rock and
Galatea, inconsolable at the loss of her lover, was changed into a fountain. The word
Galatea is used poetically for any rustic maiden. (DR. BREWER, R.H., p. 401; Petit
Larousse, p. 1335.)
Gale: A gale is caused by the spirit of the winds rushing through the air.
A gale is foretold by many crows getting together in the early morning. (Tibet.–WADDELL,
P. 136.)
Gallu: In Babylonian superstition this was a demon; the word signifies the great one.
Gammadion: Another name for the Swastika (q.v.).
Gandini: Hindu Myth. Daughter of Kasi Raja; she had been twelve years in her mother s
womb, when her father desired her to come forth. The child advised her father to
present to the Brahmans a cow every day for three years and at the end of that time
she would be born. This was done and the child on being born, received the name of
Gandini, cow daily. (DOWSON, H.C.D., p. 106.)
Gandreid: Spirit s ride ; the Norse name for the Wild Hunt (q.v.).
Ganesha: Hind. Myth. The god of wisdom and prudence the remover of obstacles. He
is the son of Siva and Parvati; he is represented as a short, fat, yellow man with a
large belly and with the head of an elephant. Generally, he is sitting cross-legged.
Ganymede: Gr. Myth. A beautiful shepherd boy of Phrygia, who was carried up to
Olympus by Zeus, and made cupbearer of the gods.
Garden: If you dream of a garden, and the trees are bare, your friends will become
poor, or you will lose their friendship; but if the trees are in blossom, you will have prosperity.
Gardsvor: House-guardian they are the household-spirits of the Scandinavians. cf.
Brownie, Nisse, Domovoy.
Garlic: In Serbia rubbing the breast with garlic is a protection against a spirit that flies
about at night.
The presence of Mamdos and other evil spirits is easily detected by the smell of garlic.
(India.)

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Mythology Encyclopedia 91

abode of the dead. Frog: When frogs croak more than usual, it is a sign of bad weather.
Frogs, lizards, owls and bats are used for various magical purposes, and as love
charms. (PLOSS, Das Weib, Vol. I, PP. 440 et seq.)
To meet a frog is lucky (LEAN, Vol. II, P. 51); it indicates that the person is about to
receive money.
Frogs or toads must not be killed on All Hallows Day because poor souls reside in
them. (ZINGERLE, Sitten, P. 114.)
According to the Mongol Lamas, a frog supports the earth on its back. Vide Jnun.
Frost: Brouillard en Mars, bientot il pleut;
Gelee en Mai plus qu on en veut.
Frost is foretold by the redness of the robin s breast. (Gt. Britain). Fruit: Plucking fruits after nightfall is an extremely pernicious habit; it disturbs the rest
of the spirits living in the trees. (India.)
In Westphalia (WOLF, Beitrage, Vol. II, P. 301; WUTTKE, p. 88) and in Bohemia
(GROHMANN), fruits and bread are thrown into the water as a peace-offering to the
Nixies.
On Christmas Eve, South Slavonian and Bulgarian peasants swing an axe threateningly
against a barren fruit tree. This is done thrice, and then another man intercedes.
After that the frightened tree will certainly bear fruit next year. (KRAUSS, V.R.B.S., P.
34.)
The Malays have a similar mode of horticulture. (SKEAT, M.M., 198 seq.) cf. Jal Pari,
Tree, Stone.
Fukurukuju: Jap. Myth. A god of luck; he is represented as possessing an extraordinarily
long head and accompanied by a crane, a deer, and a tortoise.
Full Moon: Cabbages must not be planted at the time of the full moon; if done, the
seeds will come up on the top the next morning; the moon draws them up! (STRACKERJAN,
Vol. I, P. 49.) Vide Moon.
Furies: English name for the Erinyes.
Fye-token: It is the name given for a waff in Scotland.
Fylfot: Same as Swastika.
Fylgja: Norse Myth. Tutelary spirits which attended a person either as his soul or as
guardian spirits.
G

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Fox: The fox and certain other animals are said to possess a power of bewitching
human beings by assuming phantom forms.
In Japan (GRIFFIS, CHAMBERLAIN, ASTON, BRINKLEY) and China (DE GROOT,
GILES, MAYER) for example, the animal is said to have innumerable powers; and, in
fox-possession, the spirit of the animal intrudes itself into the body of a man or woman
and exercises a more or less absolute control over the person in whose body it resides.
(Chin. Volksmarchen.)
If the tongue of a fox be dried and worn near the heart, it will safeguard you against
erysipelas in the face. (STRACKERJAN, Vol. I, P. 85.) Vide Courage, Hare.
Francus: Myth. Son of Hector. According to the poet Ronsard in his book Franciade,
Francus is said to be the father of the French nation.
Frau Holle: Ger. Myth. A variation of the Wild Hunt. Vide Holda.
Freiherr von Guttingen: He collected the poor in a great barn and burnt them to death,
mocking their cries of agony all the while. He, like Hatto, was invaded by mice and ran
to his castle of Guttingen on Lake Constance, Whither the vermin pursued him and ate
him alive.
The Swiss legend says that the castle sank in the lake and may still be seen.
Freiherr von Guttingen had three castles, one of which was Moosberg.
cf. Hatto, Graaf, Widerolf, Adolf.
Frey: Teut. Myth. A Vanir deity of fruitfulness, love, prosperity and peace. He was united
with Gerth, a giantess.
Freya: Norse Myth. The goddess of love and beauty, who also presided over the
regions of the dead. She was one of the Vanir and daughter of Njorth, and sister of
Frey. Her famous possession was the jewel or necklace Brisingamen, which was
obtained from the dwarfs.
Friday: Nails should be cut on a Friday; it brings luck and helps to keep toothache
away (Germany), hair cut on this day grows well (Silesia); children born on this day
have much to suffer (Tyrol.–WUTTKE, pp. 12, 17.).
Never be born on a Friday, help it if you can.
–(Great Britain).
Sick persons should not be visited on a Friday. (LADY WILDE, P. 214).
Sailors will not sail on a Friday.
Friday derives its name from Freya or Frigg, to whom it is dedicated. Vide Sunday,
Wednesday, Thursday, Death Omens.
Friendship: Vide Needle, Knife, Dog, Garden, Pin.
Frigg(a): Norse Myth. Wife of Odin and goddess of the sky. She presides over marriage
and domestic life. She rules not only in heaven, but also in the dark nether world, the

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Fomor: In Gaelic legend they were giants or sea-demons, powers of darkness and evil,
believed to have been overcome by the Tuatha De Danann. Most of them were represented
as huge and deformed, and some with animal heads.
Food: Food buried with the dead seems to have had the object of appeasing the spirit s
hunger. (cf. Ethnologie du Bengale, P. 75; JOLLY, Recht und Sitte, p. 155; GREGOR, P.
21; LADY WILDE, P. 118; LE BRAZ, Vol. I, P. 267). Vide Pindi.
Fool s Paradise: Vide Limbus Fatuorum.
Foot: While going along the street, if you scrape the ground with your right foot, you will
meet a friend; if with your left, you will meet with a disappointment. (Gt. Britain).
Itching of the soles of the feet denotes a journey to some unknown place. (Gt. Britain,
India, Geymany.–WUTTKE, P. 41; among the Jews–Jew. Enc., Vol. IX., p. 600).
Bhuts enter a person s body by means of the feet (CROOKE, P.R.I., Vol. I, P. 241). cf.
Hand.
Footprint: The Devil is said to leave footprints pointing towards a backward direction.
(See the story given by TYLOR in his Primitive Culture, Vol. I, P. 278).
Footwear: If they are lying on a table, they must be put on the floor before donning
them, otherwise they bring bad luck. (STRACKERJAN, Vol. I, P. 46).
Fork: A fork accidentally dropped signifies a visit from a woman. (Gt. Britain). Vide
Knife.
Forseti: Teut. Myth.: A deity of Frisian origin whose chief seat was Heligoland. Norse
Myth.: Son of Balder.
Fortuna: Class. Relig. An allegoric divinity of the Greeks and Romans. She was the
goddess of Fortune; she is represented with a bandage round her eyes, and is standing
either on a globe or on a circle.
Fossegrim: Another name for Grim.
Fountain: Dirce, wife of Lycus, was changed into a fountain by Bacchus. cf. Pirene.
Four-leaved Clover: It is lucky to find a four-leaved clover (Great Byitain), especially if it
be sewn inside the clothes. (Silesia.–WUTTKE, P. 96.)
Fowl: To bewitch till he die, take a black hen and pluck from it every feather, and this
done keep them all carefully, so that not one be lost. With these you may do any harm
to grown-up people or children. (LELAND, Etruscan Roman Remains, P. 354.)

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The white side of a flounder is caused by the Virgin Mary s laying her hand on it.
(Finland.–Notes and Queries, 15-11-1883).
Flour: It is a sin for a Bulgarian not to fumigate the flour when it is brought from the mill,
especially if the mill is kept by a Turk; this is done to prevent the Devil from entering
into it. (ST. CLAIR and BROPHY, Bulgaria, P. 46; TYLOR, P.C., Vol. II, P. 146).
To meet a person carrying flour is a bad omen. (India–JACKSON, F.L.N., Vol. I, P.
127).
Flower: If a flower be plucked from a grave and afterwards thrown away, the place
where the flower falls will be haunted. (STRACKERJAN, Vol. 1, P. 154).
Flowers or wreaths must not be laid on the bed of a sick person; this is injurious to the
invalid. (STRACKERJAN, Vol. I, P. 49).
If you take a flower with you to dinner, wipe your lips with it after drinking some wine,
and give it to your lover or sweetheart, he or she will fall madly in love with you.
(PLOSS, Das Weib, Vol. I, 443).
Ghosts sometimes take up their abodes in flower. (CROOKE, P.R.I., Vol. I, P. 291).
Fly: Vide Magpie, Vermin.
Flying: The power of flying through the air may be acquired by eating the heart of an
unborn babe. (STRACK, P. 21).
Witches are supposed to possess the power of flying through the air on brooms, goats,
etc. (LEHMANN, A.Z.; GRIMM, D.M.)
If you dream you are flying, you are vainly ambitious and romantic.
Flying Dutchman: A legendary Dutch mariner condemned to sail against the wind till the
Day of Judgment. His spectral ship, also called by this name, the seeing of which is
considered a very bad omen by sailors, is said to sail about in the neighbourhood of
the Cape of Good Hope with full sails in bad weather. (Capt. MARRYAT, The Phantom
Ship; Cf. WOLF, Niederlandische Sagen, No. 130; THORPE, N.M., Vol. III, P. 295).
Vide Ship Spectral.
Foam: If the foam from a mule s mouth, mixed with warm water, be drunk by an asthmatic
patient he will at once recover, but the mule will die. (FRAZER: G.B., Vol. III, P.
23.)
Fog: Fog on the hillBrings water to the mill;
Fog on the moor
Brings the sun to the door.
–New York (BERGEN, C.S., p. 1l2). Folkvang: Norse Myth. Frey s hall in Asgard to which went half of the battle-fallenheroes.

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