Mythology Encyclopedia 22

from which the hairs are plucked will die.
The blood of a she-ass will cure epilepsy. (STRACKERJAN, Vol. I, P. 84.)
Vide Beans.
As-Sayyahun: These are the pious travellers of Mohammedan mythology. They are
angels who scour the country with the intention of frequenting only those gatherings
where the name of Allah (God) is being repeated.
Assides: A plant in the country of Prester John. It not only protects the wearer from evil
spirits, but forces every spirit to tell its business. (BREWER, R.H.) cf. Tulsi, Chikuli,
Che.
Astarte: The Phoenician goddess of fertility and of sexual love. By the Classical nations
she was also regarded as a moon goddess. 1-fuman sacrifices were often offered to
her. (See FRAZER, Adonis, Attis and Osiris).
Asthma: Asthma can be cured by foam (q.v.) from a mule s mouth. (FRAZER, G.B.,
Vol. III, P, 23; Ethnologie du Bengale, p. 140).
Asto-vidatu: In Persian superstition it was a spirit who divided the bones at death.
Astraea: Class. Myth. Daughter of Zeus and Themis. She was a goddess of justice,
and was the last of the divinities to leave the earth at the end of the Golden Age. She
became the constellation Virgo.
Asur: Same as Ashur.
Asura: Hindu Myth. The word Asura was originally used as an epithet of the higher
gods; later, it became synonymous with an evil spirit or demon and an enemy of gods
or devas. The Asuras were created from the downward breathing of a Prajapati, and
had darkness and magic ascribed to them.
In the Rig Veda this was the name given to Varuna (q.v.); later, it denoted a ghostly and
demoniacal being of a lower order. (OTTO, Das Heilige, p. 153.)
Asvins: Vedic Myth. Two gods of dawn, twin brothers, young and beautiful, capable of
assuming any forms they chose, and said to be sons of a nymph. They are the physicians
of heaven and benefactors of mankind. cf. Dioscuri.
Asynjur: Norse Myth. They were the goddesses of Asgard (q.v.), associates of the AEsir
(q.v.) and distinguished from the Vanir (q.v.) goddesses.
Ataguchu: A Peruvian god who helped Apocatequil (q.v.).
Athanas: Gr. Myth. The mad paramour of Ino (q.v.) who slew Ino s two sons.

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Mythology Encyclopedia 21

Asgard: Norse Myth. It is the abode or the citadel of the gods. It is situated at the
zenith, and can be reached only by the bridge Bifrost, the rainbow.
Ash: If ash is thrown into the room from a burning log, troubles and anxieties must be
expected. (Greece, LAWSON, P. 328.)
On the tenth night after the death of a person, he who fired the funeral pyre is required
to sift some ashes, near which a lamp is placed, and the whole covered with a basket.
Next morning the ashes are examined, and the ghost is said to have migrated into the
animal whose mark appears on the ashes. (India N.I.N.Q., III, P. 35; CROOKE, P.R.I.,
Vol. II, P. 74; Ethnologie du Bengale, P. 73).
Ashmodai: Jewish lore. A demon, generally regarded as the same as Asmodeus.
Ashtoreth: The Phoenician goddess Astarte, the goddess of fertility and reproduction.
She was worshipped from time to time by the Israelites. Vide Astarte.
Ashur: Assyr. Myth. The chief deity of the Assyrian pantheon. He was the god of military
prowess. His symbol was the winged circle.
Ash Wednesday: Cattle must not be tied up on this day, as they lose their strength by
so doing; neither must they be sold it brings ill-luck. (WUTTKE, P. 22.)
A-Siras: A race of spirits or beings without heads. (DOWSON, H.C.D., p 26.) cf.
Acephali, Blemmyoe.
Askefruer: Ash-nymphs. These are Danish forest-spirits of present-day superstition.
Their bodies are covered with hair, their faces are wrinkled, they have hanging breasts
and dishevelled hair and are usually dressed in moss. They are endowed with various
occult powers and especially with that of curing diseases, (THIELE, Danmarks
Folkesagn.)
Asmodeus: In Jewish demonology it is the name of an evil spirit of anger and lust.
Later, he was the king of the demons.
Asp: Queen Cleopatra of Egypt is said to have committed suicide by holding an asp to
her bosom.
To dream of an asp is good; it promises wealth and a rich wife.
Asrael: Mahometan Myth. An angel of death. He is immeasurable in height, insomuch
that the space between the eyes equals a journey of 70,000 days. Vide Azrael.
Ass: The mark running down the back of an ass and the cut at right angles over the
shoulders is the cross of Christ, impressed on the animal, because Christ rode an ass
during his triumphant entry into Jerusalem.
Three hairs taken from the cross of an ass, will cure whooping cough, but the ass

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Mythology Encyclopedia 20

Arsaphes: Another spelling for Hershef.
Artemis: Gr. Myth. An Olympian goddess of various attributes. In mythology she is a
virgin huntress and goddess of wild nature. She is the same as Diana (q.v.) of the
Romans.
Artemisia: Leaves of artemisia, tied in a bundle and placed near beds, drive demons
away. (China, WILLIAMS, M.K., Vol. II, P. 255.) Vide Sweet-flag.
Arthur, King: In current English superstition he is supposed to be still living in fairy-land
and will come back to earth when the proper time arrives. He is said to sit at the Round
Table. Vide Morgaine la Faye, Papillon, Charlemagne, Raven.
Aruru: Babyl. Myth. A goddess to whom is ascribed the creation of Gilgamesh and
Eabani.
Arva: A horse. One of the horses of the moon; a fabulous animal, half horse, half bird,
on which the Daityas are supposed to ride. (DOWSON, H.C.D., P. 25.)
Arvak: Norse Myth. One of the horses of the sun, the other being Alsvid.
Arvan: Another spelling for Arv .
Aryskoui: An ancient war-god of the Red Indians of America.
Asakku: In Babylonian superstition the Asakku were the demons who carried and
spread plague.
Ascalophos: Son of Acheron. In a Greek tale he was turned into an owl for telling tales
and trying to make mischief.
Ascension Day: In Swabia, on this day, wreaths of red and white flowers are hung up
over stable doors, as a preventive against lightning. (WUTTKE, P. 21.)
In North Germany it is believed, that melons planted on this day grow well. (ib.)
In Hessen it is believed that herbs plucked or collected on Ascension Day are especially
powerful for medicinal purposes. (ib.)
Ascanius: Class. Myth. The son of AEneas and Creusa, who accompanied his father in
his wanderings after the fall of Troy; later, he succeeded his father.
Asclepius: In later Greek religion he is the god of medicine and healing.
Ases: Scand. Myth. Gods of benevolence.

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Mythology Encyclopedia 19

Arch Fiend: Other names for the Devil. Ardat lili: Maids of the night. These, in Babylonian superstition, were evil spirits who,
like the Lilu (q.v.), plied their trade at night. Ardha-nari: Half woman ; a form in which Siva is represented as half male and halffemale, typifying the male and female energies. (DOWSON, H.C.D., P. 21.) Ares: Gr. Myth. The god of war and, sometimes, of pestilence; son of Zeus and Hera,
and lover of Aphrodite. The Romans identified him with Mars. Arethusa: Class. Myth. A wood-nymph of Elis who, when pursued by Alpheus, a river,
was changed into a river running under the sea. Argonauts: Gr. Myth. The heroes who went to win the Golden Fleece. They wereabout fifty in number. Argus: A mythical monster with a hundred eyes; guardian of Io. Ariadne: Class. Myth. Daughter of Minos. She fell in love with Theseus, who afterwardsabandoned her. Ariane: Gr. Myth. Daughter of Minos. She gave Theseus a skein of cotton to guide himback after killing the Minotaur (q.v.) in the labyrinth. Theseus threw this away and fellinto the sea. Arianrod: Celt. Myth. A Cymric goddess, wife of Gwydion, mother of Dylan and Llen. Arion: Gr. Myth. The wonderful horse which Hercules gave to Adrastos. It not onlyspoke good Greek, but both its fore-feet were those of a man. cf. Al Borak, Balaam sAss, Achilles Horses. Arishta: Hindu Myth. A Daitya (q.v.), son of Bali, who attacked Krishna in the form of asavage bull and was slain by him. (DOWSON, H.C.D., P. 21.) Aristaeus: Class. Myth. A son of Apollo and the nymph Cyrene. He was deified as theprotector of flocks, shepherds, the vine and the olive; he was also the instructor in beekeeping.
Arjuna: Hindu Myth. The hero of the great epic Mah bh rata. He was one of the fiveP ndava brothers. Arm: If a person has hairy arms, it is a sign that he will be wealthy. (North Ohio,
BERGEN, C.S., p. 35.)

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Mythology Encyclopedia 18

Apollyon: One of the various names of the Devil. Apoplexy: Vide Fever. Apparel: If you dream of losing wearing apparel, your character will be injured by
another.
Apparition: An unnatural appearance of a real being; a spectre; a phantom.
The dominant spirit . . . is the apparition of a figure on horseback without a head. W.
IRVING, Sketch Book, II.
Apple: If an apple tree blossoms in autumn, it is considered to be a sign of an
approaching marriage. (Lower Saxony, WUTTKE, P. 35.)
If the first apple of a young tree be plucked and eaten by a woman who has borne
many children, the tree will be sure to bear many apples. (Bohemia, GROHMANN, P.
143; FRAZER, G.B., Vol. I, P. 39).
Appolina, St.: Vide Toothache.
April: Vide Diamond, Sapphire.
Apron : In Vogtland a girl does not allow her lover to dry his hands on her apron, for
fear this would bring about a quarrel.
If a man wipes himself on a girl s apron, he will fall madly in love with her (PLOSS, Das
Weib, Vol. 1, P. 443.)
Apsaras: The Apsaras are the celebrated nymphs of Indra s heaven. They are the
daughters of pleasure and of fascinating charms, who lure heroes and sages from their
devotions and penances. They are fairy-like beings, beautiful and voluptuous, and
number about thirty-five millions. (DOWSON, H.C.D., P. 20; TYLOR, Primitive Culture,
Vol. II, p. 173; WARD, Account of the Writings . . . of the Hindoos, Vol. II, P. 15l.) cf.
Siren, Lorelei, Houri, Peri.
Arachne: A young Lydian maiden who excelled in the art of embroidery. She was
changed into a spider, for having defied Minerva in her arts.
Aracho: It is the Mongol name for R hu (q.v.).
Aralu: Babyl. Myth. The abode of the dead, represented as a vast and gloomy cavern
in the midst of the earth, surrounded by seven walls and ruled over bv Nergal (q.v.) and
his wicked consort, Allatu, and their attendant demons. In this place the dead were
supposed to lead an existence with no hope of return to a brighter life.
Arch Enemy: Other names for the Devil.

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Mythology Encyclopedia 17

bull. They, on finding out that she was their mother, treated Dirce herself in the aforesaid
manner.
Antum: Babyl. Myth. The consort of Anu.
Anu: Egypt. Myth. A mighty king, the first-born of the gods. (SAYCE, P. 483.)
In Babylonian mythology he is the god of the sky or heavens, and is one of the most
ancient deities. His consort was Antum or Anat.
Anubis: Egypt. Myth. A jackal-god of the necropolis; he is usually regarded as a son of
Isis and Osiris (q.v.); a god of the dead; he guards the dead and superintends their
embalmment and shares with Thoth (q.v.), the office of the conductor of the dead to the
judgment Hall of Amenti, whither he guides them by the hand and where he weighs
their hearts against the Feather of Truth and Right. (WIEDEMANN, Rel. of Ancient
Egyptians, P. 230.)
Anukit: Egypt. Myth. A goddess of Libyan origin, depicted as wearing a feather crown.
She was worshipped in the neighbourhood of Philae.
Annuit: Babyl. Myth. A goddess, who was later identified with Ishtar.
Anunnaki: Babyl. Myth. A group of powerful earth-spirits, genii or demons, who were
servants of gods; on the whole, they were hostile to men. They were closely associated
with the Igigi (q.v.).
Apaosa: In Persian means Drought ; hence drought personified.
Apepi: Egypt. Myth. The great serpent, who led the onslaught of the demons against
the sun, by whom they were duly overcome; thus symbolizing the struggle of darkness
and light.
Aphrodite: Gr. Myth. The goddess of love and beauty, and of life as expressive of the
cosmic power of love.
Apis: Egypt. Myth. The sacred bull, which was considered as the highest form of animal
life.
Apocatequil: In Peruvian legend he was the first son of the mortal who descended on
earth. He recalled his mother to life, and made an aperture in the earth with a golden
spade, through which the race of the Peruvians emerged and took possession of the
land. (GASKELL, P. 54, quoting Non-Class. Myth., p. 12.)
Apollo: Gr. Myth. One of the most important of the Olympic gods, especially conspicuous
as the god of manly youth and beauty, of poetry and music, and of the wisdom of
oracles.

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Mythology Encyclopedia 16

Anito: The Irayas and Catalangans of Luzon worship the souls of their ancestors under
the name of Anitos. These are household deities; some of them reside in pots, and
miniature houses standing near the family dwelling are sacred to them. (FRAZER,
G.B., Vol. II, P. 463.)
Ankle Bones: The ankle bones of a hare are superstitiously believed by the Arabs to be
a powerful weapon against Jinns, Ghouls and even Satan himself. (HASTINGS, Dic
Bib., Vol. IV, p. 603.)
Anne, St.: Vide Riches, Wealth Beslowers.
Annwn: Celt. Myth. The British Hades, represented as a sea-girdled, revolving fortress.
Gwyn was the leader of the dead.
Anqa: Turkish Folklore. A fabulous bird of enormous size, said to inhabit the Caucasus
range (REDHOUSE, Turkish-English Lexicon, Constantinople, 1890, p. 1325; KUNOS,
T.F.T.).
He whose head touches the shadow of a flying anqa, will wear a crown (ZENKER,
Dictionnaire turc-arabe-persan, Leipzig, 1876, p. 640.).
Ant: When ants are unusually busy, foul weather is at hand (SKEAT, Malay Magic, P.
535).
Ants never sleep. (EMERSON, Nature, Vol. II, P. 53.)
To have an ants nest made near your door portends security and riches (LEAN, Vol. II,
P. 53)
If you dream of ants, you will live in a great town, and be happy, industrious, well-married,
and have many children.
According to Alexander Ross, the cruel battle between the Venetians and theInsubrians, as also the one between the Li geois and the Burgundians, in which30,000 men were slain, was presignified by combats between two swarms of ants. VideWorm.
Anteus : Gr. Myth. A giant, son of Neptune and the Earth, who was killed by Hercules.
Vide Bernardo del Carpio. Anthony, St.: Cures erysipelas. Antigone: Gr. Myth. A daughter of OEdipus (q.v.) and Jocosta, typical of faithfulnessand heroism in the Greek ideal of womanhood. She was her father s guide after he hadtorn out his eyes. Antiope: A Theban princess carried off by Epopeus. She became the mother ofAmphion and Zethus. She was maltreated by Dirce, wife of Lycus, and unknowinglytook refuge with her sons, who were ordered by Dirce to tie her to the horns of a wild

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Mythology Encyclopedia 15

Anchor: If you dream of an anchor, you will, if a man, be a sailor, or if a woman, marry
one.
Andhaka: A demon, son of Kasyapa and Diti, with a thousand arms and heads, two
thousand eyes and feet; he was called Andhaka, because he walked like a blind man,
although he could see very well. (DOWSON, H.C.D., p. 15.)
Andromache: Wife of Hector. After the fall of Troy, she became a slave of Pyrrhus, son
of Achilles. Her name is symbolic of conjugal love.
Andromeda: Gr. Myth. Daughter of Cepheus and Cassiopeia. By the decree of Zeus,
she was chained to a cliff, to be devoured by a monster. Perseus returning after slaying
Medusa, killed the monster and married her. When Phineus, her betrothed, interfered,
Perseus changed him into a stone by means of the Gorgon s head. Vide Medusa.
Angdistis: Vide Agdistis.
Angel: Angels in popular belief are the supernatural messengers of God.
Children who like to talk of angels, or are unusually clever, will not live long. (STRACKERJAN,
Vol. I, P. 35.)
To dream of seeing an angel is good, to dream of being one yourself is better, but if
you dream you are speaking to one or calling on one, it is of evil significance.
Angerboda: Norse Myth. She was a giantess who, by Loki, was the mother of the wolf
Fenrir (q.v.), the Midgard Serpent (q.v.) and Hel (q.v.), goddess of the dead.
Angling: To dream of angling presages affliction and trouble.
Angus: Celt. Myth. A Gaelic god of love and amorous dalliance. He was son of Dugda,
whom he cheated out of his underground palace. His harp was of so sweet a tone that
whoever heard must follow; his kisses became invisible love-whispering birds.
Anilas: Hindu Myth. A class of deities, forty-nine in number, connected with Anila, the
wind. (DOWSON, H.C.D., p. 17).
Animal: No animal dies near the sea, except at the ebbing of the tide. (Gt. Britain.)
Animal under Yoke: Vide Stones.
Animisha: One who does not wink ; a general epithet of all Indian gods. (DOWSON,
H.C.D., p. 17)
Animism : (As the subiect is too vast to be dealt with in a few lines, the reader is
referred to TYLOR: Primitive Culture.)

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Amon-Ra: Egypt. Myth. He was called the father of the gods, the fashioner of men, thecreator of cattle, the lord of all being, etc. He is represented as a man wearing on hishead a disc, surmounted by two tall ostrich plumes. His wife was Mut, and Chunsu washis son. The ruins of Carnac are the remains of his great Theban temple. Amphiaraus: Gr. Myth. A hero and seer of Argos, who took part, among others, in theExpedition of the Seven against Thebes. He was worshipped as a god at Orpus. Amphion: Gr. Myth. Son of Zeus and Antiope; twin of Zethu-s, and husband of Niobe. Amphitrite: Class. Myth. One of the Nereids (q.v.); wife of Poseidon (q.v.). Amphitryon: Class. Myth. Zeus takes the form of Amphitryon and visits Alcmene, hiswife, entertains her with a feast and becomes the father of Hercules. Amset: Egypt. Myth. He was the man-headed genius of Amenti. He was associatedwith the North. Amulets: In India all kinds of diseases are superstitiously believed to be cured by wearing
different kinds of amulets. (See advertisements in the daily, weekly or monthlypapers of Calcutta, Bombay, etc.) Anadyomene: Gr. Myth. An epithet of Aphrodite, alluding to the legend of her rising outof the sea at birth. Anaemia: It is believed to be caused by vampires (q.v.) sucking the blood of the living.
(FOSTER, Observations during a Voyage round the World, P. 543; Enc. Brit., Vol. VIII,p. 6; SKEAT, Malay Magic, PP. 326 et seq., RHYS, Celtic Folklore, p. 673;
ENNEMOSER, History of Magic, Vol. II, pp. 185, 480; KRAUSS in Mitteil. d. anthrop.
Gesell. zu Wien, Vol. XVIII. P. 183).
Anafielas: In Lithuanian legend it was a high, steep mountain, up which all souls of thedead had to clamber; claws of bears and lynxes were therefore burnt with the bodies tohelp the deceased in this arduous task. Anaka-dundubhi: Drums ; a name of Vasu-deva who was so called, because the
drums of heaven resounded at his birth. (DOWSON, H.C.D., p. 14.) Ananga: The bodyless ; it is a name of Kama, god of love. Ananta: The infinite ; it is a name of the serpent Sesha. (DOWSON, H.C.D.) Anat: Vide Antum.

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Mythology Encyclopedia 13

Amarum: Among the Quichas of Equador this is one of the most formidable demons
known; it is of the form of a huge water-boa. It is the father of witchcraft, and the souls
of sorcerers are said to take up their abode in these monsters. (KARSTEN, Indian
Tribes of Equador, P. 70.)
Amatongo: A Zulu generic name for the ghost-folk (CALLAWAY; HAGGARD, Nada the
Lily, pp. 60, 99, 113, 217, etc.)
Amazons: Gr. Myth. A race of female warriors, generally supposed to have inhabited
the coasts of the river Thermedon, in Cappadocia, with whom the Greeks repeatedly
warred. They were said to expose their male children and to burn (or cut off) their right
breasts. The most famous queens of the Amazons were: ANTIOPE who attacked
Theseus and was vanquished by him; PENTHESILEA who was killed by Achilles;
THOMYRIS who caused the death of Cyrus; and THALESTRIS who encountered
Alexander.
Amber: It is said to be a concretion of birds tears. The birds which wept amber were
the sisters of Meleager, called Meleagrides, who never ceased weeping for their brother s
death.
Amber is a cure for sore throats and all glandular swellings.
Ambergris: It is said to be the petrification of some interior part of the whale. (BASSETT,
P. 240, quoting O Reilly.)
Ambondrombe: The Hovas of Madasgascar believe that the ghosts of men and beasts
live on this great mountain, and occasionally walk among the tombs and execution
places (q.v.) of criminals.
Amchi-malghen: It is the guardian-nymph of the Chilians. (MOLINA, Chili, Vol. II, p. 86.)
Amenti: Egypt. Myth. The region of the dead; it is the subterranean realm, whither the
sun descends. The soul entering Amenti was conducted by Anubis (q.v.), was judged
by the forty-two judges, and was then passed on to Aalu (or Elysium), or tortured
according to its due. It corresponded to the Greek Hades or the Hebrew Sheol.
Amethyst: The amethyst is an emblem of humility and sobriety. It is dedicated to
January and Venus. In the Zodiac it stands for Sagittarius; in metallurgy, for copper; in
Christian Art it is given to St. Matthew, and in the Roman Catholic Church it is set in the
pastoral rings of the bishops; whence it is called Prelate s gem.
Amethyst banishes a desire for drink and promotes chastity. The Greeks thought that it
counteracted the effects of wine.
Amon: Egypt. Myth. Originally a local deity, and later one of the chief deities of the
Egyptian pantheon; subsequently, he was called by the name of Amon-Ra (q.v.).

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