which represented agate to the Underworld, would then

personified happy events. Laetilia and Annona were connected with incidents particularly desirable for the city of Rome: namely, the arrival of corn. DEIFIED HEROES AND ALLEGORIES. Hercules (Greek, Heracles). In primitive times the functions of Hercules whom some people merged with Semo Sancus, Deus Fidius and Silvanus – were rural. He assured the fruitfulness of the countryside, watched over families and guarded their heritage. Certain authorities see in him the particular Genius of man as Juno was of women. He was linked with the history of Rome’s very site. When he carried off the cattle of Geryon, the triple-bodied monster who reigned over the western coast of Iberia, Hercules made a stop between the Aventine and the Palatine hills under the hospitable roof of Evander. During the night the brigand Cacus half man, half satyr, the son of Vulcan – stole some of his heifers. To hide the theft Cacus dragged the animals by the tail to his den on the Aventine. The following morning the stolen heifers bellowed in answer to the bulls which Hercules was preparing to drive on. Guided by the sound, Hercules removed the boulder which concealed the den of Cacus and after a terrible struggle slew the bandit in spite of the flames which he belched forth. The scene of this battle was later called the Forum Boarium. Romulus and Remus. Romulus and Remus were sons of Mars. Mars had surprised the Vestal, Rhea Silvia, daughter of Numitor, King of Alba, while she was asleep and lain with her. The resulting twins were placed in a winnowing basket and set afloat on the Tiber. The river overflowed and deposited the basket before the grotto Lupercal, under the fig-tree Ruminal. There a she-wolf came to suckle the infants who were sheltered and brought up by the shepherd Faustulus and his wife Acca Larentia. When the twin brothers decided to found a new city they first carefully studied the flight of birds. In that section of the sky which the Augur’s wand had apportioned to Romulus he saw twelve vultures. In Remus’ section only six could be seen. Romulus proceeded, with a plough harnessed to a white cow and a white bull, to draw a furrow which should mark the boundary of the new city’s walls. Remus jumped over this shallow furrow in derision and his brother killed him. It is possible that this rivalry between the two brothers was a symbol of the rivalry between the two districts of ancient Rome – the Cermalus (or the Aventine) and the Palatine. In order to people his town, which was more or less in the shape of a square – the Roma Quadrata – Romulus founded a place of asylum beyond the ramparts. The neighbours refused to marry such outlaws and Romulus took advantage of the rustic festival called the Consualia to abduct the daughters of the Sabine tribe whom he had invited to the ceremonies. The mysterious death of Romulus and his disappearance during a storm are the invention of the poet Ennius. Afterwards Romulus was identified with Qui-rinus and worshipped under that name. Acca Larentia, wife of the shepherd Faustulus and the foster-mother of Romulus, had another legend according to which she was a notorious courtesan in the days of Romulus and Ancus. Hercules played dice with the guardian of her temple. He won and in consequence ordered her to unite with a certain rich Tuscan named Tarrutius who left her a large fortune. Acca Larentia left it to the Roman people who in her honour instituted the Larentalia. Castor and Pollux. At the battle of Lake Regillus in 496 B.C. during the war with Latium, the Roman dictator Aulus Posthumius made a vow to erect a temple to Castor and Pollux who were honoured atTusculum, a town which was an enemy of Rome’s. A few seconds later Castor and Pollux were seen at the head of the Roman cavalry leading it to victory. That same evening the inhabitants of Rome saw two young men, dressed in purple chlamydes. watering their white horses at the fountain of Juturna in the Forum. They were Castor and Pollux who had come to announce the victory and, incidentally, to become part of the religion of Rome. They were of Greek origin and had arrived via Etruria where they were called Kastur and
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